There are numerous opportunities for things to go wrong in casting operation, resulting in quality defects in the cast product.
1) Misruns (due to rapid solidification second).
2) Cold shuts (due to rapid solidification prior to complete filling of the mold)
3) Cold shots (because globules splattered metal during pouring).
4) shrinkage cavity (due to lack of riser system).
5) Microporosity (due to localized solidification shrinkage).
6) hot tearing (due to the death to prevent shrinkage).
Defects associated with sand molds:
1) beat Sand.
3) Sand wash.
6) Mold change.
7) Change Core.
8) Mold crack.
1) Visual Inspection to detect obvious faults such as Misruns, surface flaws.
2) Dimensional measurements to ensure tolerances are met.
3) metallurgical, chemical, physical, and other tests related to quality.
a) Test to teaks pressure in finding solutions.
b) radiographic methods of magnetic particle tests, using fluorescent penetrants, and supersonic test to detect surface or internal defects in casting.
c) Test Mechanical properties such as tensile strength and hardness determination.
If defects are out but not too serious, can often save on the casting welding, grinding or other salvage methods agreed by the customer.