Types 316 (UNS S31600), 316L (S31603), 317 (S31700) and 317L (S31703) molybdenum-is stainless steels austenitic more resistant to general corrosion and pitting / crevice corrosion than the conventional chromium-nickel stainless steels austenitic such as 304. Type of alloys also offer higher creep, -strus-to rupture and tensile strength at elevated temperatures. In addition to corrosion resistance and excellent strength properties, the Types 316, 316L, 317 and 317L alloy Cr-Ni-Mo also provide the excellent fabricability and formability which are typical of the austenitic stainless steels.
Applications include for Types 316 and alloy 316L compounds acetic acid, vats brandy, products corn screening equipment, fasteners, kettles for cooking ketchup, processing equipment, pharmaceuticals, industrial parts phosphate, processing equipment photographic film, pitting-corrosion resistance, equipment pulp and paper processing, smokestacks, textile finishing equipment, textile mill Kiers, water softener tanks, wire cloth and screens (industrial) and yeast tubes.
There are 316 types, 316L, 317 and 317L more resistant to atmospheric and other mild types of corrosion than types 302, 304 and 304L. In general, the media do not corrode Types 302, 304 and 304L, will not attack the grades of molybdenum in them. One exception known highly oxidizing acids such as nitric acid to the molybdenum-stainless steels are less resistant.
Alloy is 316 / 316L are molybdenum-austenitic stainless steel. The nickel and molybdenum allows higher content in this grade corrosion resistant properties better overall interpretation than 304, especially for pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments. Additionally, Alloy 316 / 316L provides an elevated temperature tensile, creep and stress-rupture excellent strengths, as well as outstanding formability and weldability. 316L is the low carbon version of 316 and more it is immune from sensitization; therefore, it is often used in heavy gauge welded components.
-Food preparation equipment, especially in chloride environments
-Chemical processing, equipment
-Laboratory benches and equipment
-Rubber, plastics, pulp & paper machinery
-Pollution control equipment
-Boat fittings, value and pump trim
-Pharmaceutical and textile industries
-Condensers, evaporators and tanks
-Generally more resistant than 304 in range of atmospheric environments and many corrosive media due to the increased chromium
and molybdenum content.
-Subject to pitting and crevice corrosion in warm chloride environments, and to stress corrosion cracking above about 122°F (50°C).
-Considered resistant to potable water with up to about 1000mg/L chlorides at ambient temperatures, reducing to about 500mg/L at
-Usually regarded as the “marine grade stainless steel” – but is not resistant to warm sea water.
-Type 316/316L is somewhat more difficult to machine than Type 304 because of its toughness.
-316/316L machines with chip characteristics that are tough and strong.
-Chip breakers and curlers are advised.
-As large a tool as possible and great amounts of cutting fluid should be used.
-Heavy positive feeds at low speeds should be considered since 316/316L work hardens rapidly.
Contrary to its name, stainless steel is respect for their anti-corrosion properties than its resistance to staining. It is an alloy composed mainly of iron-but when combined with other elements, it can be desirable properties for a range of applications to achieve. Chromium is the defining ingredient that makes stainless steel with it, making up a minimum of 10.5 percent of the total composition. Among the other ingredients commonly nickel alloys, titanium, aluminum, copper, nitrogen, phosphorus and selenium.
Can be different quantities of chromium, as well as other materials, can be used to varying degrees to achieve corrosion resistance. The two most common stainless steel grades 304 and 316. erosion is a natural phenomenon. Pure Elements such as iron, basically react with surrounding environments. In fact, very little can get natural elements in their pure form of gold, silver, copper and platinum become part of the small samples. The process is rust iron combined with oxygen molecules present in the water. The result is a flaky red oxide material that deteriorates more easily revealing more erosion. Iron and standard carbon steels are very susceptible to this type of corrosion.
Stainless steel, however, has the innate ability to form a protective surface to prevent corrosion. How does this happen? The chromium found in all stainless steels react rapidly with oxygen environments, much as the same iron. The difference, however, that only a very fine layer of chromium oxidize (often just a few molecules in thickness). This is extremely thin barrier very durable and non-reactive. It adheres to surfaces of stainless steel and will not transfer or further react with other materials. It is the self-renewal in that it will replenish if damaged or removed also. Once oxidized, or passivized, stainless steel rusts usually at a very low rate of less than 0.002 inches per year. Both 304 and 316 stainless steels (along with other grade 300-series) using nickel to maintain an austenitic composition at lower temperatures. Austenitic steels versatile balance of strength, workability and corrosion resistance, making them ideal for architectural applications and outdoor landscape. On the advantages of stainless steel with long service life to keep attractive, clean finish with low maintenance cost. It also maintains a high value if and when needed equipment and parts to be decommissioned.
The difference between 304 and 316 stainless steel the presence of molybdenum, which provides a much higher level of corrosion resistance-especially for more saline environments where exposure to chlorides expected. For outdoor site furnishings, stainless steel is a corrosion-resistant material ideal to withstand long-term exposure to the environment.
304 stainless steel with high resistance to rust. It will withstand corrosion from most oxidizing acids and is often used for kitchen and food applications. However, it is susceptible to corrosion from chloride solutions (especially saline environments with high amounts of sodium chloride). Chloride ions can create local areas of corrosion, known as “pitting” that can spread under protective chromium barriers to compromise internal structures. Solutions can have as little as 25 ppm of sodium chloride is corrosive effect beginning. 304 grade is the most common form of stainless steel used worldwide. It consists of between 16 and 24 percent chromium and up to 35 percent nickel as well as small amounts of carbon and manganese. The most common form of 18-8 stainless steel 304, or 18/8, stainless steel, which contains 18 percent chromium and 8 percent nickel.
316 grade is the second-most common form of stainless steel. It is almost the same mechanical and physical properties with 304 stainless steel and similar materials make up. The difference is 316 stainless steel comprising molybdenum about 2 to 3 percent, which increases corrosion resistance-especially against chlorides and other industrial solvents. Alternative grades can 300-series that up to 7 percent molybdenum. 316 stainless steel is commonly used in many industrial applications of process chemicals, as well as high-saline environments such as coastal regions and areas outside its de-icing salts are common. Because of its non-reactive qualities, stainless steel 316 is also used in the manufacture of medical surgical instruments.