The choice of the chemical composition, except for P and S in grades other than grade requiring case ofwelding and having the s & W ix is left to the discretion of manufacturer it. For each ofO.O1 reduction Helow percent of carbon 0.25 percent, an increase de0. 04 percent of manganese above the maximum of + ecified will be allowed up to a maximum of 1.40 percent to 280 to 520 W category. The total content of these elements must not exceed 1.OOpercent in the case of grades with the W suffix. 1 test shock and bending are optional (see 13.3 and 13.4). Two grades W limit the chemical composition and can be ordered when ensuring ease of welding in a requirement. ‘) If measurable performance superior tbe stress, or 0.2 per cent of elasticity. Tubes bending must be of appropriate length, for the machines in which they will be Bent, and must have either a diameter of 25 mm or 25 mm x 20 mm rectangular section. The edges of the rectangular test specimen must be rounded to a radius not exceeding 1.5 mm and in the case of the rectangular test specimen the test must be performed by folding of the test on the thinner section piece.
Ultrasonic examination (see IS 7666), review of magnetic particles (see IS 3703), review of penetrating fluid (see IS 3658), and radiographic examination (see IS 2595). Unless otherwise provided in the following is one of the standards of acceptance: a) b) c) d) is IS IS is 9565 for the ultrasound, 10724 for inspection of magnetic particles, 11732 for penetrant inspection. and 12 938 for the x-ray inspection.
Analysis of casting steel where it is carried out either by the method described in IS 228 and its relevant parts or any other method / chemical instrumental established are those given in table 1. In case of dispute the procedure in IS 228 is the referee process. However, when the method is not given in IS 228, the method of the arbitrator should be as agreed between the purchaser and the manufacturer. 8.2 the manufacturer shall carry out an analysis of a sample of melt each and, if it is stipulated by the purchaser at the time of the investigation and order, must provide a certificate of chemical analysis of steel sample test to melt each. 8.3 the product analysis if specified at the time of the investigation and order, the analysis of the product can be made from a piece of test or a representative casting melt each. Drilling for the analysis must be taken from not less than 6 mm below the surface of the melt, and so as to not compromise the usefulness of any casting selected. The variation permitted in the analysis of the product of the limits laid down in table 1 must be given in IS 660 1. 8.4 residual Elements 8.4.1 Elements not specified in table 1 should not normally be added to steel and all reasonabic precautions must be taken to prevent contamination of scrap metal, etc., to keep them as low as possible. 8.4.2 analysis and reporting of the analysis in the test for residual elements certificate should be made only when it is specified by the buyer in the investigation and order. However, the manutacturer ensure that residual elements are within the limits, when these limits are specified by the purchaser in the investigation and order. 9 finishing manufacturing 9.1 the castings must be precisely molded in 1.
A number of households or Crucible heats of similar composition mixed in a pocket or tapped into the pockets separated and paid at the same time to make a cast. 3.2 Batch a group of parts moulded materials, the same smelting quality and heat-treated together under identical conditions. 4 GRADES 4.1 this standard covers a total of eight classes of steel castings for general engineering purposes carbon. 4.2 included in 8 categories are 4 categories with the chemical composition restricted to ensure ease of welding at the end of the buyer and these notes concern the ‘W’ suffix. 5 provision of equipment General requirements for the supply of cast steel parts shall be as provided for the 8800 IS. 6 manufacture of steel for castings must be made by electric arc or electrical induction or other processes that may be agreed between the purchaser and the manufacturer.
1998, the compliance with the model or drawings to work provided by the buyer or as mutually agreed with the addition of these letters, figures and brands that can be specified: 1030 y. 9.2 the purchaser must specify the tolerances on all important dimensions. On other dimensions, tolerances specified in IS 4897 are applicable. 10 absence of faults 10.1 all castings shall be free of defects that will have a negative effect a ct and machining parts of Foundry or utility. 10.2 when it is necessary to remove the throws or doors to flame or arc or a combination of these, or any other process involving intense heat, precautions must be taken to make the cut at a distance of sufDcient from the body of the casting to prevent any failure to be introduced in the casting due to local heating. Such an operation must be done before the final heat treatment. 10.3 in the case of casting prove defective causes of foundry in preparation, machining or erection, such casting may be rejected notwithstanding any previous certification tests and / or satisfactory inspection. 11 trimming and dressing all flows must be duly fettled and dressed, and all surfaces should be thoroughly cleaned. 12 heat treatment 12.1 the castings must be treated thermally in a well built oven, having adequate means of temperature control, which would enable all of the castings to be uniformly heated to the required temperature. All castings, must undergo a heat treatment to achieve the specified mechanical properties. 12.2 unless indicated otherwise in the investigation and order or agreed between the buyer and the manufacturer, all the casts are either fully annealed or normalized or normalized and. 12.3 the tubes are heat treated with casts they represent. 13 mechanical tests.
The specified mechanical properties are those that must be obtained from test cast separately from bars ‘ or fixed parts to which they refer and heat treated as data in 12. Thus represented test values, therefore, represent the quality of steel from where the castings have been sunk; they do not necessarily represent the properties of the moulded parts themselves. 13.2 the tensile test shall be carried out in accordance with the 1608 IS. The relevant mechanical properties must be asgiven in table 2. 13.3 if specified in the inquiry and order, impact test shall be carried out in accordance with IS 1757 and values must conform to the requirements listed in table 2. 13.4 Bend test if this is indicated at the time of the investigation and order the bend test shall be carried out in accordance with IS 1599. ‘ L & T pieces must be capable of being cold bent without fracture at an angle given in table 2 around a mandrel having a diameter of 50 mm.
The development of casting steel industry and the improvement of steel-making technology are inseparable. Although the technology of wronght steel made steel components available, it was impossible to manufacture steel casting before mastery of liquid steel-making technology, In the initial stage of liquid steel technology becoming practically, the liquid steel was formed by pouring into sand mould. Though technology applied in the process was very simple, the products were still be considered as steel castings.
The general situation of development of casting steel industry can be divided into the following two phases which are bounded by the 1940s .
The first phase was the emergence of steel and the formation of casting steel industry from 1845 to 1940.It almost experienced 2000 years from the iron age to the liquid steel coming out for the first time. From iron-making to steel-making, though there are only differences on carbon content and melting point, the technology is a big difficulty. The major obstacle is the lack of melting equipments which are high temperature resistance and corresponding refractory materials.
The second phase is the technology progress of the casting steel industry after 1940s.The development of casting steel and alloy materials have advanced studies on alloying and micro alloying. And all kinds of alloy steel and special steel in the casting steel production account for growing proportion which is one of the important technical progress in modern steel casting industry.
And technology progress is also one of the reasons for slowing casting production. The rapid promotion of continuous casting of iron and rolling technology of iron and steel industry is the most typical example which makes the traditional ingot mold decrease significantly.